Wednesday, September 18, 2019
The Welfare Problem The poor are everywhere it seems. They are on the street corner, in the local 7 Eleven, and in the plaza. Sometimes I get sick of them and even angry with them when they pester me for money. I ask myself, "Is the best way to deal with poor, to give them money from my pocket?" It's obvious that other people have given them money from their pockets at different times. If no one had ever given them money, then these people wouldn't be standing here asking for money. The fact is, many poor people ask for money because they know they can get money that way. For most of the last 70 years our government has indirectly given the poor money from our pockets, through taxes and welfare. Not surprisingly, people have continued to ask for money. For most of those 70 years welfare fed the mentality that the best way to get money was to ask. I believe welfare as it was first started, failed miserably and created millions of dependents in poverty instead of independents above poverty. The welfare r eform of 1996, I believe has helped the poor escape from the trap of poverty and is a more beneficial way of dealing with the poor. The idea of the United States government assisting the poor financially, originated nearly 70 years ago (Modern Welfare Programs). The depression was in full flux and the American people were demanding help from the government. Franklin D. Roosevelt signed the first federal poverty assistance act called Aid to Dependent Children Act in 1935 (Background: Time for a new Approach). This laid the foundation of the current government entitlement program now called welfare. World War II brought thousands of jobs to America and slowed the growth of the entitlement program. A vast majority of people were employed either directly by the government or through other war related jobs. After the war the economy held strong for the next ten years (Modern Welfare Programs). Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In 1962, President John F. Kennedy raised the current welfare payments and renamed the program, Aid to Families with Dependent Children. Kennedy allowed states to require work in order to receive welfare, but didnÃ¢â¬â¢t require it. Kennedy also laid out the new goal for welfare in America, it was to Ã¢â¬Å"end poverty, not just alleviate povertyÃ¢â¬ (Background: Time for a new Approach). Kennedy said welfare should be Ã¢â¬Å"a hand up, not a hand out." Welfare continued to change... ...amilies Program, Fourth Annual Report to Congress). Welfare Reform is causing the poor to work and it is lowering the poverty rate of Children. I believe that the old entitlement programs of the past 70 years led to an unnecessary dependence on the government for many people. Welfare reform has cut dependence on the government and helped thousands of people find work. It has helped people find meaning and value in life and commit less crime. Welfare reform is succeeding and I believe it is more compassionate on the poor person than the entitlement system. Welfare reform has provided much needed help for those poor who need help in finding a job. It also has provided a way for the poor to contribute in their communities and to become independent from the government. It's not the perfect system, but it sure is an improvement on the previous system of endless entitlements, that created over 15 million dependents on the government. As Christians we are called to have compassion on all people and I believe welfare reform is more compassionate on the poor than the entitlement system was. It helps them escape poverty instead of tra pping them in poverty. That is what I call success.
Tuesday, September 17, 2019
Writing Assignment Resource Management Policy The National Forest Management Act (NFMA) of 1976 is a federal law that reorganized, expanded and amended the Forest and Rangeland Renewable Resources Planning Act of 1974, which called for the management of renewable resources on national forest lands. The National Forest Management Act requires the Secretary of Agriculture to assess forest lands, develop a management program based on multiple-use, sustained-yield principles, and implement a resource management plan for each unit of the National Forest System.It is the primary statute governing the administration of national forests. The NFMA had a particular focus in regulating when, where, and how much timber could be harvested and in requiring public involvement in preparing and revising the plans. In 1982 the NFMA published the Planning Regulations, a process that planned to integrate the many interests concerning the forests. There are ten major steps to this process.Identify issues , concerns, and opportunities (ICOs); Develop planning criteria; Collect data and information necessary to address ICOs; Analyze the management situation (AMS); Formulate a broad range of alternatives including a Ã¢â¬Ëno action, alternative; Estimate the effects of each alternative on the environment, the economy, and society; Evaluate alternatives by comparing how well each resolves the ICOs; Select a preferred alternative; Implement the plan by updating all uses of the forest into conformity of the forest plan; and monitor and evaluate the plan by comparing the actual biological effects of the plan to the projections.The NFMA has started many legal suits regarding the degree of involvement required by both the forest service and the public, but the most famous was the Ohio Forestry Association v. Sierra Club. The Sierra Club claimed that the logging practices allowed in the Wayne National Forest in Southeast Ohio were unlawful under NFMA because the Act requires ongoing input an d management from the Forest Service.The Court rejected the claims of the Sierra Club and stated the Forest Service is not an agency required to perform ongoing action or involvement in the forest plans. BIBLIOGRAPHY: * Pegg, J. r. Ã¢â¬Å"Bush Converts National Forest Management to Corporate Model. Ã¢â¬ Ã Environment News Service. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. ;http://www. ens-newswire. com/ens/dec2004/2004-12-23-10. html;. * Ã¢â¬Å"National Forest Management Act of 1976. Ã¢â¬ Ã Wikipedia, the Free Encyclopedia. Web. 14 Nov. 2011. ;http://en. wikipedia. org/wiki/National_Forest_Management_Act_of_1976;.
Monday, September 16, 2019
As we increasingly realize that our own self-destruction is inevitable in the destruction of the planet, the insular notion of Western modernity as the height of human progress is finally being questioned. However, the resultant paradox is that although we realize the resultant flaws of depending on one form of progress, the only alternatives that we could turn to are dying off of the face of the earth. Thus the global trend of language loss is an issue incredibly worthy of long overdue attention; it may in fact be our last meaningful alternative to rescue the plight of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s survival.As a repository of knowledge, an expression of culture, and a symbolic embodiment of a way of life, the loss of a language speaks for itself. Although some Aboriginal languages are on the brink of extinction in Canada, regrettably, not many people are listening to the last cries of the voices that are quickly vanishing. I will explore the reasons why this is the case. Firstly I will delve i nto the roots of language, as a vehicle by which the essence of each particular culture comes into coherence in the material world and how its cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s level of conceit that sustains its insularity.The history of Western culture, as a product of European colonialism and industrial capitalism, clearly exemplifies that its essence and more importantly its arrogance, is fundamentally at odds with a harmonious relationship with the natural world, currently leading to its own detriment. With this colonial mentality in mind, a second aspect I will explore is the stark alternative to this one way of thinking that is exemplified the in the culture of the Squamish people of Vancouver.Thus thirdly, the settlement, industrialization, and current urbanization transforming Vancouver, is arguably augmenting the divide between both ways of being, perpetuating the self-destruction of all people who are at the mercy of the dominant cultureÃ¢â¬â¢s conceit. Thus I will argue that in contrast to VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s Aboriginal peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life, the current level of arrogance sustaining the dependence on Western modernity will ultimately, inevitably be the demise of humanity. It is undeniable that language, like all things that humanity has created, is ultimately an invention of natural world.As a watershed of imagination, language tries to make sense of the world and may be understood as the symbolization of the human thought in trying to grapple with the nature of existence. Although these symbols were created in order to mediate and make sense of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s place in the universe, since their creation they have transformed and pervaded human cognition to such an extreme extent as to actually replace inexplicable nature of existence with a false sense of Ã¢â¬ËrationalÃ¢â¬â¢ reality. Symbols, now meaning speech, are a cultural phenomenon fundamental to encompassing what define civilization (Zerzan Language: 237).As much as symbols in any culture try t o grapple with their reality in a complex scientific, or rational sense, due to their inherent detachment from the natural world and intrinsic reductionist nature, all attempts to find the answers of the universe, to fit harmoniously with mother earth will ultimately be at odds with what is in fact, incomprehensible. The seemingly rational is ultimately irrational. The layers of complexity now sustaining the process of symbolization account for an ongoing need to label and thus control what ultimately could never be comprehensively defined. SOURCE). An important element in this process of symbolization is the man-made conception of time. Time is one the earliest layers of symbolizationÃ¢â¬â¢s complexity that enhanced a constructed nature of reality. John Zerzan notes that timeÃ¢â¬â¢s fruition accounts for the need to define a sense of Ã¢â¬ËprogressÃ¢â¬â¢ that would dominate manÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of history, further alienating him away from the natural world. In a cycle of their own creation and perpetuation, the purpose of civilization has therefore, only been to reinforce itself.The perpetual construction of this notion of progress has ultimately led to the self-induced domestication of the mind, enhancing manÃ¢â¬â¢s estrangement from the natural (Zerzan Book: 25). Instead of surrendering to manÃ¢â¬â¢s harmonious connection to the inexplicable cosmos and thus accepting his own visceral nature, this false notion of progress has been perceived as an inevitable part of human development. Progress is now out of human control and thus alternative ways of existence are seen as backwards and illogical. Future Primitive: PAGE). The zenith of this sense of progress, is encompassed in the current notion of modernity as it is both the height of this civilization and yet the worst reality that the natural world has yet to endure. The sense of progress has always been subjected to the dictatorial role of arrogance and economics, what Williams calls the Ã¢â¬Å"inh erent dominative mode of thinkingÃ¢â¬ (SOURCE). Economics narrates manÃ¢â¬â¢s conception of property in an alchemical mix of human labor on the earthÃ¢â¬â¢s soil in the pursuit of material wealth.Excessive material wealth superficially bolsters the sense of privildege, evolving to be better understood as their hubris. The Western cultural lineage that has pushed humanity Ã¢â¬ËforwardÃ¢â¬â¢ depends strict on this mentality, and now there exists a common belief that as Westerners works diligently towards the height of modernity, somehow other cultures in the world have become intellectually idle (Davis 2009: 166). Progress is largely perceived as a rushing current of vim and vigor, with an unstoppable momentum carrying all of us in its wake.Upon arrival in North America, with superiority imbued in their mentality, European colonialists brought a sense of progress to the New World. As both a by-product of their amalgamated colonial imagination and their equally delusional sci entific minds, Canada became a laboratory to be poked, measured, defined and prepared for extraction back to continue the fervent industrialization of Europe (Rigney 1999: 109). The colonial mentality is highlighted in their sense of property. Colonialists believed that property had to be enacted; it is as much a physical reality as it is constant aspiration to control.In their minds, property is a verb that must be put to work in order to define it (Blomley: 566). This is in accordance of the influential perspective of John Locke, who helped to ingrain the belief that if the land was not being used, it is being wasted. Thus the divine commons was rendered private property, Ã¢â¬Å"Eden sank to griefÃ¢â¬ and our natural world was at the mercy of manÃ¢â¬â¢s endless attempt to control and accrue all that they could from their surroundings (Blomey: 561). Just as Language is a creation of the natural world, it is the architect of sustaining meaning for a culture.Therefore in its use , language is also a system of power that allows the meanings imparted by cultural hegemony to endure and endure themselves (Focault: 22). Although this cultural lineage now dominates the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s sense of progress, not all people believe in this once sense of reality. On the margins of modernity, some peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s resilient existence stands as testimony that this one insular mode of thinking is not be the only way of being, nor is it the best way for humanity to survive (Davis: PAGE).Such people do not feel the need to subjugate and try to feebly control the wonders of the natural world, but rather their existence is at the will of what they realize they cannot control. Instead of feebly trying to control the world around them, they would rather be spiritually submerged in natureÃ¢â¬â¢s all-encompassing, inexplicable power (Davis: Page). The Coast Salish indigenous people that have historically dwelled in what is now defined as the city-limits of Vancouver are just one e xample of such a people whoÃ¢â¬â¢s underlying purpose in life is arguably not at odds with the natural order of the universe.Coast Salish is there common name, however within this label are a number of different cultural heritages that are uniquely defined by both their geographic location and correspondingly, their language. In VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s major reservations today, such identities as the Musqueam, Squamish and the Tsleil-Waututh peoples still dwell in a miniscule enclosure of their ancient homelands. Although their lands are being encroached on from all sides, they try to uphold the ways of their ancestors as a more visceral reality, that was once so harmoniously in balance with British ColumbiaÃ¢â¬â¢s ecosystem (Baloy: 520).Because of their ancient history of being so intimately tied with their surrounding terrain, these peoples distinct cultures, embodied in their in their oral traditions and expressions of art, encapsulate their belief in humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s divine conn ection with the land. Living adjacent to the Pacific, what is mentioned in more than one of these peoplesÃ¢â¬â¢ creation stories is the belief that the land around them sprung from the rich expanse of water on which they heavily rely (Blomey:). In stark contrast to the EuropeanÃ¢â¬â¢s colonial conception of the property as Terra Nullius, or that it was there for the taking.The resultant boundaries that EuropeanÃ¢â¬â¢s created in this region are deeply embedded cultural experiences that had specific meanings for colonist. The concept to divide territories on the ground set limits marking distinct social groups and provide a mental template for categories of control (180). In contrast, Coast Salish peoples believe that the land that they gratefully depend upon came into being for a higher purpose. It was not inanimately waiting for humans to define it or bring it to life, but rather its very existence would be what defined them.Following the creation of land from the Ã¢â¬Ëmud of the ocean,Ã¢â¬â¢ the Squamish Coast Salish speak of an extended period of silence that enveloped the earth, in which humans, if they existed at all, only touched lightly on the land (Hill-Tout 1978: 20). The world in their sense was pure and if humans were there, they did not leave any traces of their settlement along the coast nor did they turn on their environment to accrue a sense of history via material wealth. Their ancestors quietly followed the nomadic paths of existence, dictated by the rhythms of life (566). Territorial connections are underwritten by heir relational epistemology- a way of knowing the world through relations. Their knowledge, use, control and even ownership of the land is based on complex relationship with ancestors and spirits which go to the heart of indigenous experiences of dwelling in that place (Thom 2000: 179). Today anthropologist remark on the sophistication of the Coast Salish economy, political structure and way of life. Virgina Crawford att ributed their civil aptitude to the security of their marine substance, as it allowed them to develop a complicated social system based on inherited or acquired clan rank (299).Although CrawfordÃ¢â¬â¢s perspective gives credit to the Coast Salish peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s intelligence, it is expressed as both a novelty for Indigenous peoples and is tinged with Western lens of progress as if Coast Salish resource extraction was evidence to their efforts to civilize their society. Ultimately this perspective actually reduces the true intelligence of these peoples, which is beyond what Western science can coherently understand. Due to the fact that their existence is imbued with a spiritual understanding of the cosmos, every aspect of their daily lives revolves around ritual (Crawford: 299).Their devout survival is perhaps best captured in their most visible expression of culture, their art. In correlation to the Coast Salish creation story, their rich motifs are an attempt to imbue the awesom e aura of the natural world into an implicit design. Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦Ã¢â¬ ¦.. The main thrust behind the degradation of human diversity is the crude face of privilege. The sense of superiority that some cultures have over others because they see world through a monochromatic lens, and persist in interpreting what their perception through a single cultural paradigm, their own (WF-Davis: 6).VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s Indigenous Community: Squamish: History, Creation, Art, Knowledge, Colonial Encounter Colonial Encounter: Mentality, Property, Language, ProgressSignificance of Urban environment Each word of even the most remote language is the a resounding testimony of cultural identity, and serves to act as a link connecting people with their past, their social, emotion and spiritual vitality (Norris: 12). (Norris 1998: 8) means of communication, but a link which connects people with their past and grounds their social, emotional and spiritual vitality. Norris 1998: 8) Although loss of language doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t necessarily lead to the death of a culture, it can severely handicap transmission of that culture. Modernization vs. Language vitality Without doubt, the forces of dominant languages and modernization exert a strong influence on any minority language. In the case of Aboriginal languages, historical events such as the prohibition of indigenous language use in residential schools have also contributed to this process. In addition, the fact that most Aboriginal languages were predominantly oral may also have diminished, in an already difficult environment, their chances of survival. Norris 1998: 8) Facts as of 1996- The current 50 languages of CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s indigenous peoples belong to 11 major language families- 10 first Nation and Inuktitut. Several major dialects within them. (Norris 1998: 9) Largest Language in Canada is Algonquin- 147,000 people Geography contributes to size, distribution of Aboriginal Languages Research: M. Dale Kinka de 1991 Ã¢â¬Å"The Decline of Native Languages in CanadaÃ¢â¬ Root of Language- Geography of Canada- Plains accommodate a large group of people.Soaring mountains and deep gorges tend to restrict settlement to small pockets of isolated groups in B. C- small languages. Salish, Tsimshian, Wakashan, Haida, Tlingit, Kutenai- could not develop as large a population as dispersed Algonquin. (Norris 1998: 9)- Isolation can also play a part (Indigenous Issue) Mother tongue population: those people who first language learned at home, and still understood is an Aboriginal Language. (Norris 1998: 10) Index of ability (Kn/MT)1: compares the number of people who report being able to speak the language as a mother tongue.If for every 100 people with a specific Aboriginal mother tongue , more than 100 person in the overall population are able to speak that language, some clearly learned it as a second language either in school or later in life. This may indicate language revival. (Norris 1998: 10) (Stat) Because unlike other minority groups, Aboriginals cannot rely on new immigrant to maintain or increase their population of speakers, passing on the language from parent to children is critical for all indigenous languagesÃ¢â¬â¢ survival (Norris 1998: 11) (Indigenous issue)CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s Aboriginal languages are amongst the most endangered in the world- significant numbers of languages have either already disappeared or are close to extinction (Norris 1998: 15). Among the languages spoken today 2 out of 50 are viable with a large population base- Large or small viable languages (Norris 1998: 15) (Stat) Research: How the English Language Became the WorldÃ¢â¬â¢s Language- Robert Crum Globish. Revival- Sacred Ways of Life: Knowledge. Chelsea Crowshoe- crowshoe consulting Inc.Everyone is a community or culture, hold traditional knowledge because it is collective- WHO: defines traditional medicine- the sum total of knowledge, skills and practices based on theories, beliefs, a nd experiences indigenous to different cultures, whether explicable or not, used in the maintenance of health as well as the prevention diagnosis, improvement of treatment of physical and mental illness Traditional knowledge is shared through ways of exchanging cultural and traditional information such as storytelling- (Crowshoe: 2)Language and culture are the foundation of nationhood of First Nation, Inuit, and Metis people. CanadaÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural wealth is not merely its official bilingualism- or its multicultural tapestry- Aboriginal languages re part of the our mosaic- A number o Aboriginal languages have died (WHICH ONES? ) and more are at risk- 29% of First Nations people can converse in their language- only a few are flourishing: Cree, 85,000 speakers, Ojibway, 30,000 speakers, Anishiimowin 12,5000- Montagais0Naskapi 11,000.Most Inuit can speak one of the dialects of Inuktitut but statistic Canada report a decreasing number using it as the main language at home- Michif- tra ditional language of the Metis These values are associated, amongst other things, with economic reductionism, mechanistic modes of thinking, aggressive individualism and the destruction of community. (Bennett 2010: 9) The residential school system, mobility and more recently, television, internet are responsible for the loss of language. Canada does well on Global Standards- All of Caribbean languages are extinct- half of the indigenous Central and South American languages-Last ten speakers of Nitinat (Ditidaht) or Comox spearks of Vancouver Island 100 Seneca Cayuga or Onodaga speakers of the nearly 4,000 in south Western Ontario Baloy, Natalie J. K. We CanÃ¢â¬â¢t Feel our Language: Making Places in the City for Aboriginal Language Revitalization Language Revitalization efforts are overwhelmingly located in rural environment despite the fact that aboriginal people are increasingly choosing to live and rasie their families in urban settings. Youth are anxious to learn language (Bal oy 2011: 515) Emerging language ideologies of urban aboriginal peopleStrong Aboriginal identity and urban lifestyle are mutually exclusive Land, language and identity- how can this be fostered and nutured in urban spaces (Bayol: 516) The sduy of language ideology-has emerged as a mediating link between social structures and forms of talk. Language ideology refers to the social connection people make with the own or otherÃ¢â¬â¢s languages, dialects of language variations. The fate of many minority language is likely determined to a large extent by ideology (Baloy 2011: 517) Language ideology- rich possibilities for understanding how people think about and value language.Identifying how language ideologies are constructed, maintained and contested can meaningfully inform strategies for language documentation, planning education and revitalization in contexts of language loss. Ideological clarification (Baloy 2011: 517) Contemporary language ideologies evolve out of historical experi ences and are shaped by mainstream attitudes towards language, government policies and demographic changes (Baloy 2011: 517) Government policies perpetuated mainstream ideologies that position English as a powerful international lingua franca and aboriginal languages as outmoded.Aboriginal languages are often unrecognized, unknown, unappreciated by non-aboriginal society. Sensitive to multingualism- most highly educated and politically influential, largely ignorant of the sheer diversity and complexity, the cognitive and cultural richness of the native languages of the First Nations peoples (Baloy 2011: 517) Historical policies and processes have contributed to the devaluation of aboriginal languages in Canada- continue to resonate today.Residential schools, the Sixties Scoop, galvanizce gnificanation of aboriginal- (Baloy 2011: 517) As a result, many aboriginal parents refrained from speaking their heritage languages to their children in efforts to boost their chances for success i n mainstream society- a generation of young Aboriginal children grew up monolingual in English- drop after residential schools. (Baloy 2011: 518) Angered by the loss of language, community leaders seek redress as the loss of language has become a symbol of government oppression and assimilation policies. Baloy 2011: 518) Reclamation of Native identity, pride, decolonization, assertion of sovereignty (Baloy 2011: 518) Henry Davis stated: Ã¢â¬Å"If you talk to anybody on the reserve, the chiefs will stand up and say two things of utmost importance: language and landÃ¢â¬ Dual significance What bout about Urban Aboriginals? (Baloy 2011: 518) Urban vs. Remote comparison, similarities, contrasts Urban Example: Vancouver Diversity of British Columbia- Western Canada Vancouver is located in the traditional lands of the Musequea, Squamish, Tsleil-Watuth. The Katzie, Kwantlen, Sto:lo, Tswassan- recognized as local First nations.Umbrella Coast Salish- Squaimish and Musqueam have urban reser ves- MusqueamÃ¢â¬â¢s language: Henqeminem- no fluent speakers though there are some semifluent speakers- efforts to restore and revitalize language- Squamish: Skwxwu7mesh Snichim- some fluent speakers, working toward language revival (Baloy 2011: 519) From beginning VancouverÃ¢â¬â¢s development aboriginal nonlocal aboriginal people have made the city for temporary or long-term settlement. Great diversity of aboriginal people living on traditional Coast Salish homelands. Vancouver jobs, education and services. Baloy 2011: 520)There are over thirty five First nations groups represented in the city. First Nations groups are represented in the city in additional to Metis and Inuit peoples. There are now over forty thousand people who identify as aboriginal in the Metro Vancouver area. 1/5 of the total aboriginal population in the province. (Baloy 2011: 520) The number of Aboriginal people has risen in Vancouver- 30% since 1996. Aboriginal peoples living in the city continue to grow- (Baloy 2011: 520)In the early 1950Ã¢â¬â¢s 7% of aboriginal people in Canada lived in urban settings- Today approximately 54% of aboriginal people now living in cities. 0% in B. C Moving back and forth between city and reserve. Though many identify with a particular Native heritage and homeland, their aboriginal life is situated in city life (Baloy 2011: 520) Despite urbanization- language revitalization work has maintained mostly an on-reserve focus- reflects wider trends in social science research on aboriginal people as well as mainstream understandings of aboriginal identity (520) Cities or places that had the potential for economic development Why the city has been ignored for so long? Rural aboriginal homelands- rural bound up in colonial histories- Themes of genocide, dispossession of land, and aboriginal government relations emphasize these geo-demographic patterns Reserves are native space- Colonial practice placed reserves in their favor. By interrogating these processes scholars can avoid reifying colonial practices that have contributed to trop of rural aboriginal homelands. Peoples from communities across B. C and Canada have ow moved to Vancouver to live dwell on Coast Salish homelands an urban environment (524) negotiating cultural protocol in such diverse context can become somewhat impler when local people are emphaisized. Outsiders still honor the Coast Salish homelands and attempts to rvitalize language. Some people believe that the world would be a better place if we all spoke the same language. If this is true, and the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s sole language somehow ended up being Arabic for instance, I wonder what life would be like not being able to converse with someone else in my mother tongue.My world would be inevitably enveloped in silence, I would not be able to coherently articulate stories of my heritage nor utter words that could cohesively encompass the full expression of who I am. It is undeniable that this would possibly be one of the loneliest states of existence imaginable. Unfortunately, such an unthinkable condition is in fact a stark reality for some peoples in the world. This phenomenon has mainly tightened its grasp on to weakened Indigenous communities whose dying tongues have been systematically forced to the edge of extinction on a global scale.As languages continue to disappear from the face of humanityÃ¢â¬â¢s cultural diversity, the need to address this issue becomes increasingly more pertinent. Unlike learning French or Spanish, within Indigenous communities, learning a language is ultimately a spiritual process. It gives peace, a sense of reality, a sense of peace. In an urban setting, learning an aboriginal language can enrich oneÃ¢â¬â¢s links with other people from the same nation or strengthen connections to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s aboriginal heritage on deeper personal level. Meeting these language goals requires approaches different from long-term language learning.The most intensive projects for lan guage workers and learners aim to develop conversational, everyday use of language. (530) New words in the urban setting- like the internet, or the elevator that are not readily at hand for aboriginal peoples. This fast pace, changing the modern world is almost impossible for English to keep up with. (530) Many of their words are obsolete. Conversely, words that aboriginal langues do have in abundance, such as vocabulary related to local food procurement and specfic land features have limited relevance in the urban setting. Language is obsolete in that sense. 530) ItÃ¢â¬â¢s now up to the community to change language to fit the city-dwellers needs. Thus making IDEOLOGICAL places for language in the city involves identifying how aboriginal languages can fit into urban peopleÃ¢â¬â¢s lives, integrating how aboriginal languages (531) What is offered in the inclusion of Native Languages in the lives of urban aboriginal people. Research participants suggest that urban language learning can have wide-ranging effects: it can strengthen individuals bonds with their own identity and their test to homelands, community building efforts.We canÃ¢â¬â¢t feel our mother, we canÃ¢â¬â¢t feel our language. Being cut from the land they are literally cut from all meaning language. (537) Musqueam, Squamish and other local nations- resilience, connections between land, language and identity remain strong and resilient. The close connection between language and the land. Have developed by geography. Getting out in the wilderness is where language makes sense- where language is manifested. Noting that sounds emulate the land. The diversity of languages in BC- physical geography of B. C (324)
Sunday, September 15, 2019
It will describe Wal-Mart as a non-union employer, paying lower wages to heir employees than other retail and grocery stores. They do not offer benefits to all employees and most are unable to afford them. Between Wal-Mart's business practices in increasing their profits and the need to recognize their social and ethical responsibilities, Wal-Mart needs to find a comfortable balance of profitability and responsibility in order to improve their reputation. During the process of writing this report, we found that there was much more Information to be discussed about Wal-Mart's unethical business practice than what was reported.We also wanted to point out that although all companies do everything ossible to lower their costs and maintain high production rates, Wal-Mart has crossed the line over the years by managing their profits In unethical ways compared to otner large corporatlons wno nave Deen etnlcally ana successTully managlng tnelr business practices. Information that can be foun d on Wal-Mart is changing everyday and it was sometimes difficult to keep up. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY Wal-Mart has been recognized as the leader in its industry and the largest company in the nation.With its powerful profit making abilities, Wal-Mart has grown from a local corner store to the money making Ã¢â¬Å"monsterÃ¢â¬ it is today. The company has amaged its reputation over the years due to unethical choices made by its top executives. As a result, its anti-union stance has been singled out on issues concerning benefits, wages, and overall business practices. When reviewing Wal- Mart's financial statements, one would be overwhelmed to see such high performances; but when you are a Wal-Mart employee, it is no surprise why that is true.Employees have been denied opportunities of advancement and pay raises. Lawsuits have been pending against the company with employees claiming they have been denied promotion opportunities in the company due to their gender, and some mployees have sue d for being over-worked and under paid. Wal-Mart has become so big in its industry, that it has lowered the wages through out the country and has influenced economic change. Since most of Wal-Mart's employees live below the poverty line, it is difficult for them to afford health insurance when deductions out of their paychecks are sometimes as high as 33%.A Wal-Mart employee who obtains health insurance would have a very difficult time raising a family with this kind of premium. Wal-Mart employees are unable to receive healthcare benefits because the cost is too high and their wages are low. As a result, employees face a difficult time deciding whether to sacrifice such a large portion of their pay to obtain health insurance; in most cases Wal-Mart employees persist without health coverage. Deductions for health insurance are higher for Wal-Mart employees than other national retail employees.A Wal-Mart employee pays about 25% more for health insurance than the average retail worker. Wal-Mart has also been opposed by its female employees, who make up two- thirds of its workforce. Women have been discriminated in wage and have been denied any advancement to upper managerial positions Ã¢â¬â dominated my men. Men ake approximately more than women and have a higher chance of advancing to a better position. Dukes vs. Wal-Mart, filed in 2001, was the largest lawsuit against a private employer in the nation and represented 1. million female employees who were discriminated based on their sex. From lawsults to employee complalnts, Wal-Mart nas Deen Tacea wltn a great deal 0T difficulties that have developed through their own unethical business practices. Although every company's goal is to lower costs and produce large numbers, Wal- Mart has made sky-rocketing profits by unethically hurting its employees and cutting down their wages. Many question why Wal-Mart, the richest retailer in the world, chooses not to provide adequate wages or health benefits for its employ ees.If Wal-Mart were to reform its health benefits program, raise their product prices by as little as a penny, and create a bias free working environment for women, Wal- Mart would be in better terms with its employees and improve the reputation it sacrificed from the start. NOT ON WAL-MART WAGES INTRODUCTION Background Wal-Mart, the large international discount chain was founded by Sam Walton. On May 5, 1950, Walton purchased a store in Bentonville, Arkansas, and opened Walton's & 10.Little did the small town residents know that they would later become the headquarters for the world's largest retailer store in the U. S. Through his sa'. n. y, and sometimes unusual, business practices, he and his associates led the company forward for thirty years. As Wal-Mart grew into a global corporation it is today, it has dealt with a great deal of criticism by outsiders. Wal-Mart's ethical citizenship has been questioned numerous times and researched by many. There have been many doubts about Wal- Mart's business integrity and questions whether their practices are ethical or not.Wal-Mart has faced, and is still facing, a significant amount of controversy over several different issues. Wal-Mart has been caught bribing its employees, discriminating against women, denying its employees of training or promotions, paying low wages, and providing high deductibles for health insurance. Wal-Mart is now paying the consequences and need to become socially responsible in order to maintain a better reputation with society. Although consumers are reeled in with the low prices Wal-Mart has to offer, others feel their ethical beliefs are more important than saving a quick buck.Purpose Statement of The purpose of this report is to examine Wal-Mart's unethical business practices with a focus on employee wages and high health care deductibles. The report will question Wal-Mart's aptitude to sell products cheaper than any of its leading competitors and yet maintain making a substantial am ount of profit. The report will analyze the unethical practices that have developed through Wal-Mart's history as a result of focusing on high productivity and profit making strategies. cope The report will describe Wal-Mart's unethical business practices that affect its employees. It will examine Wal-Mart's unethical behavior in conducting business with n overall focus on employee wages. Limitations Time constraints have limited the extent of the research. There is a vast amount of information regarding this issue and we are unable to report it all. In addition, no funds are available to conduct primary research. Methods of Research The method of research for this paper was secondary research through databases, internet websites, and books.The research databases of California State University, Los Angeles, will be used to locate articles in current and past publication. The databases used are Lexis/Nexis and Business Source Premiere. Also libraries, uch as the John F. Kennedy Memor ial Library at California State University, Los Angeles and Los Angeles Public Library in Porter Ranch, California. The major findings of this study indicate that Wal-Mart being the world's largest and richest retail chain is setting the standard on wages for retail workers and beyond.Because Wal-Mart has become so big, it has dragged down wages throughout the country. Wal-Mart has become what it is today by selling products at low prices and paying their Ã¢â¬Å"associatesÃ¢â¬ even lower wages. Unhappy Wal-Mart workers complain as much about being over-worked as underpaid. Wal-Mart has its own stated policies at its employees' expense. Wal-Mart pays it's Ã¢â¬Å"associatesÃ¢â¬ below basic living wage standards and even below poverty lines. Overworked and Underpaid Employees H. Lee Scott Jr. is the chief executive of the powerful corporation we call Wal-Mart.According to Mr. Scott, by selling vast quantities of goods at its trademark Ã¢â¬Å"Every Day Low Prices,Ã¢â¬ Wal-Mart has single-handedly raised America's standard of living, saving consumers about $100 billion a year (Bianco 2). They feel that selling vast quantities of low price merchandise gives them the right to act as if they represent the American people. Scott states, Ã¢â¬Å"Wal-Mart also provides good Jobs for hundreds of thousands of equally deserving employees, offers even part-time workers generous health insurance and other benefitsÃ¢â¬ (Bianco 2).He accuses greedy labor unions, inefficient supermarket chains, and other Wal-Mart opponents of distorting Ã¢â¬Å"the factsÃ¢â¬ to suit their own purposes. Wal-Mart insists on describing themselves as Ã¢â¬Å"pro-associate, not anti-union,Ã¢â¬ but is quick to suppress any and all attempts to have unions organize in its stores. In his book The Bully of Bentonville, Anthony Bianco describes how Wal-Mart has ffected wages beyond their own company: Because Wal-Mart Is so Dig, It nas araggea clown wages tnrougnout the country.Economists at the University of California at Berkeley found that Wal-Mart's expansion during the 1990s cut the income of America's retail employees by 1. 3 percent-or by $4. 7 billion in 2000 alone. What is more, the depressing effect of Wal-Mart's expansion on payrolls extended well beyond retailing. According to a 2005 analysis by economists at the Public Policy Institute of California, take-home pay per person fell by 5 percent across the board following Wal-Mart's entry into a country.The evidence Ã¢â¬Å"strongly suggest(s) that Wal-Mart stores lead to wage declines, shifts to lower-paying Jobs (or less skilled workers), or increased use of part-time workers. (4) Today, Wal-Mart is surrounded by controversy, but the greatest is from within. Unhappy employees are quitting and dozens of class-action lawsuits are pending against the company. Managers have been known to force employees to work extra hours without pay; either by eliminating breaks or by having them clock out and keep working Ã¢â ¬Å"off the clockÃ¢â¬ . This is Wal-Mart's way of saving on costs at the price of its employees.Store managers earn bonuses based on earnings. Since the corporation dictates the inventory and operating expenses, managers' only control is labor costs. Joyce Moody, a former manager in Alabama and Mississippi, told the New York Times that Wal-Mart Ã¢â¬Å"threatened to write up managers if they didn't bring the payroll in low enoughÃ¢â¬ . Depositions in wage and hour lawsuits reveal that company headquarters leaned on management to keep their labor costs at 8 percent of sales or less, and managers in turn leaned on assistant managers to work their employee's off-the-clock or simply delete time from employee time sheet (ufcw. g). In the late 1990's Wal-Mart's annual turnover rate was a remarkably high 70 percent, 40 percent higher than in previous years (Slater 120). Wal-Mart does not see this as being a problem. The constant turnover reduces employees eligible for raises, promotions, benefits, and holds the average wage down. Just another way to keep payroll costs at a minimum. Employee Wages Wal-Mart employs 1. 3 million workers in Just the U. S. and operates more than 3,400 stores throughout the United States. A full time employee working 28- 40 hours a week at Wal-Mart is paid on an average of $250 a week.Besides having low wages, those workers who are interested or eligible in obtaining health insurance for themselves or for their family pay high premiums and frequently don't get the coverage they expect. The majority of Wal-Mart employees live below the poverty line and after making deductions in taxes and insurance coverage, a Wal-Mart employee's salary is not enough to provide them a standard way of living. Ã¢â¬Å"The 2003 poverty guideline for a family of four is $18,400, $4,256 more than the $14,144 in earnings a full-time Wal-Mart worker earns at $8 per hourÃ¢â¬ ¦A household of four with a gross ncome of $23,920 or less could be eligible for food sta mps -$9,776 more than a full- time, $8-an-hour Wal-Mart worker would earn in a year. Ã¢â¬ (www. aflcio. org) These numDers are even worst Tor part time workers. I oaay, one -tnlra 0T Wal-Marts employees are part-time workers. They are limited to less than 34 hours of work per week and are not eligible for benefits and must wait 1 year before they can enroll. Sex Discrimination in the Work Place In addition to Wal-Mart's low wages, its female workers are more disadvantaged and discriminated against in wage than its male workers.More than two thirds of Wal- Mart's hourly employees are women and make up most of the lower wage positions which include: working the cash registers, stocking shelves and working the sales floor. Although men take responsibilities in these positions as well, the majority of men who work at Wal-Mart have positions as Management Associates or much higher ranked positions. Seventy-two percent of Wal-Mart employees are female and less than one-third of those w omen have management positions in the company.With that in mind, the average male employee was paid about $5,000 more in 2001 per year than the average female full-time employee. As Wal-Mart's own workforce data reveals, women in every major Job category at Wal-Mart have been paid less than men with the same seniority, in every year since 1997 even though the female employees on average have higher performance ratings and less turnover than men. (http://www. walmartclass. com). Dukes vs. Wal-Mart is said to be the largest and most famous gender discrimination lawsuit against a private employer and is the largest class-action suit in U.S. history, representing 1. 6 million current and former female employees. Betty Dukes was the leading plaintiff in the case and sued Wal-Mart for ex discrimination; she was a fifty-four year old African-American woman who worked as a greeter for Wal-Mart. Factors such as seniority and performance were Wal-Mart's main excuses and reasons that women ear ned from 5% to 15% less than men. It is disappointing to see that even the cashier positions, that are dominated by women, have men earning more than women.Wal-Mart not only overworks, under pays and discriminates against women, but it also provides neither childcare for workers or affordable family health benefits. Unaffordable Healthcare Deductibles Wal-Mart employees are incapable of receiving healthcare benefits available for hem because of its high cost and their low wages. Since most of Wal-Mart's employees are unable to afford these health benefits, most of these individuals either turn to government aided insurance such as Medicaid, depend on their spouse's plans, or expect to see a doctor in rare and emergency cases with no insurance.It is argued that uncovered Wal-Mart employees are not signing up for medical insurance and benefits because most of them exceed the income ceiling and are not eligible. Wal-Mart provides insurance for over 900,000 employees that are with and w ith out dependants. Employee premiums range between $143. 54 to $249. 71 per month for family coverage and $33. 04 to $72. 04 per month for single coverage. The National Average of workers covered by employer health insurance is 67 percent, and only 47 percent of Wal-Mart's employees are covered by the company's health care plan.That is a huge gap when considering that each percent represents thousands of people. Most Wal-Mart employees have a difficult time aec101ng wnetner to attaln nealtn Insurance or stay unlnsurea Tor tne sake 0T saving money. Ã¢â¬ËCynthia Murray, who has worked at a Wal-Mart store in Laurel, Md. , or six years, suffers from asthma, but goes to see a doctor only when she suffers a bad attack. Murray is 50 years old, makes $9. 47 an hour, and says that the Wal-Mart plan that costs $23 a month has a $1,000 deductible, which makes it too expensive for her to use. Another plan subtracts $100 from her paycheck every two weeks. l don't think anybody working at Wal- Mart has that kind of money,Ã¢â¬ says Murray. Ã¢â¬Å"All I'm asking from Wal-Mart is a fair shareÃ¢â¬ (Gogol). Many Americans question why Wal- Mart, one of the richest companies in the United States, can't offer affordable health insurance and pay a living wage. Comparing Wal-Mart's employee health benefits and wages to Costco's employee health benefits and wages, one will notice that Costco not only pays its employees higher than Wal-Mart but their deductions are far less. Ã¢â¬Å"The average wage at Costco is $17 an hourÃ¢â¬ ¦. a full-time worker at Wal-Mart makes $7. 0 an hour on average. Costco workers pay Just 8% of their health premiums, whereas Wal-Mart workers pay 33% of theirs. Ninety-one percent of Costco's employees are covered by retirement plans, with the company contributing an annual average of $1 ,330 per employeeÃ¢â¬ (Cascio). Based on these facts, it is easy to ay that Wal-Mart employees are giving up a large portion of their paychecks to obtain health ca re. Wal-Mart employees who do have health insurance and receive coverage are paying more in premiums but receive less for their money; in large corporations this has become a trend.New laws have been passed intended to force large corporations to control employee wages and reduce insurance deductibles. From law suits to employee complaints, Wal-Mart has recently thought of ways to reduce the cost of health benefits. The new plan would charge monthly premiums ranging from $25. 00 for individuals to $65. 0 for a family, making that 45-65% less than what employees contributed in the company's existing plan. But it is not enough to reform the reputation Wal-Mart has lost or the vulnerable employees they let down. oncluslons High productivity and lowering costs is one of the top and most important objectives in business. Wal-Mart being the World's largest retailer can afford to pay their Ã¢â¬Å"associatesÃ¢â¬ more than what the minimum wage offers. They are in fact, the richest retail er in the world and yet neglect to provide their employees affordable health care with a livable wage. Even if Wal-Mart was to pass 100 percent of the wage ncrease on to consumers, the average impact on a Wal-Mart shopper would be quite small.Wal-Mart's choice of action toward employee wages, health benefits, and bias work environment have not only brought an enormous shadow over its employees' lives but also over its own big business reputation. The injustice decisions made through out the history of Wal-Mart has changed many lives and has forever changed the American economy. In the business world, there is big, and then there is Wal-Mart. Recommendations Based on the conclusions presented above, the following actions are recommended: 1 . Retaining Ã¢â¬Å"associatesÃ¢â¬ already on staff would be more cost affective then high employee turnover. 2.Train employees. Give the opportunity to advance and have freedom to associate and organize. 12 3. Our analysis reveals that establish ing a higher minimum wage for large retailers like Wal-Mart would have a significant impact on workers living in poverty or near- poverty. 4. In order to increase employee satisfaction, reforming the cost of health insurance would help keep Wal-Mart in good terms with their employees. 5. If Wal- Mart was to raise their prices by as little as a penny to the dollar it would afford them o pay the higher wages. Higher wages provide the employees opportunity to afford health coverage. . Implementing fair employment and labor practices.
Saturday, September 14, 2019
In Ã¢â¬Å"Where are you going, where have you beenÃ¢â¬ , this story makes me frustrated with the main character Connie. She comes off to me as an immature little girl who wants to live the life of a mature woman, but when faced with reality she is still just a little girl. I felt Connie feels the need to rebel or act a different person when she leaves her house and in a sense lives a double life and has two personalities. In the story the author writes, Ã¢â¬Å"She wore a pull-over jersey blouse that looked one way when she was at home and another way when she was away from homeÃ¢â¬ (Oates 325). This was an example of how Connie lived this double life. Connie made herself very vulnerable when she goes out with Eddie and exposes herself as a Ã¢â¬Å"womanÃ¢â¬ when she is not. What I feel is significant about this piece of literature is the story that is being told and the reality behind it. Many young girls face this kind of reality everyday and donÃ¢â¬â¢t have a good outcome. The authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ intention in the story was to portray a little girl named Connie and show her struggle with adolescence and wanting to become a woman far too fast. The themes that stand out to me in this story are ConnieÃ¢â¬â¢s constant fantasizing and daydreaming. She is always worried about her appearance and fantasizing about boys, but when it comes down to the reality of actually engaging and being confronted with a man, she reverts to being a child again. Another theme that stands out to me is Connie leaving herself extremely vulnerable. She has her friendsÃ¢â¬â¢ dad drop them off at a shopping plaza, but sneaks off to a drive in to meet boys. Then she meets with Eddie and hangs out in an alley. This exposes her to Arnold Friend. She portrays herself with a lot of independence, but when she has the confrontation with him at her house, she tries to scare him away with saying, Ã¢â¬Å"But my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s coming back. HeÃ¢â¬â¢s coming to get meÃ¢â¬ (Oates 330). She says this because she is still a little girl and doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t quite know how to handle this situation. The reality of this type of story is what makes this piece of literature valuable. The author wrote a story about a young girl wanting to grow up too fast and puts herself in situations that portrays her independence, but then exposes her vulnerability. As a reader, I felt this story is a reality for many young girls. I think the authorsÃ¢â¬â¢ goal here was to allow the reader to see what many young girls face and how easy it is to be manipulated by a man who has aggressive attributes. It was very creepy for this man to know everything about Connie when they were never formally introduced, but ConnieÃ¢â¬â¢s appearance led him to believe she was open to her sexuality than what she really was or could handle. References Oates, Joyce Carol. Ã¢â¬Å"Where Are You Going, Where Have You Been.Ã¢â¬ Lit. Eds. Laurie Kirszner and Stephen Mandell. Boston: Wadsworth, 2012. 325-331. Print
Friday, September 13, 2019
Analyse the comedy in Act 3 Scene 4 of Twelfth Night Essay Shakespeares romantic comedy Twelfth Night involves deception, trickery and love, typical themes in Elizabethan drama. This theme of romance intertwined with comedy is suggested by the title which implies that a play set in the Christmas season is going to be full of love, happiness and celebration. The literary tradition of an Elizabethan comedy would involve many techniques to make the audience laugh, such as a convoluted plot, mistaken identity, disguise, comic characters and verbal humour. Twelfth Night is no exception to this. Its main theme is love but the path to true love is not simple for any of the characters and involves certain love triangles, where Orsino thinks he loves Olivia, who loves Cesario (Viola), who is in love with Orsino. Added to all this is the complication of Sir Andrew Aguecheek being spurred on by Sir Toby to woo Olivia and Malvolio having a trick played on him which makes him believe that his mistress, Olivia loves him. Many of these plots and sub-plots come to a head in Act3 Scene 4 in a very comic manner. Malvolio provides much of the visual humour in this scene. Olivia sends for him on a serious matter, saying: Wheres Malvolio? He is sad and civil, And suits well for a servant with my fortunes: The audience would be full of anticipation at this point as Malvolio has been told in a letter supposedly sent to him by Olivia to smile a lot more, something which is totally against his usual character. When he walks on stage he is wearing yellow cross-gartered stockings which he thinks he has been commended to wear. This would make the audience laugh as it is so different to the Puritans clothes that he was wearing earlier in the play. It was also mentioned earlier that Olivia despises the colour yellow so her reaction to seeing her steward dressed so comically would add to the humour of the scene. Malvolio starts to quote from the letter he received from Maria. He never once suspects that it is not real and truly believes that Olivia could love him, which is where much of the comedy derives from, as he is so confident that Olivia understands what he is talking about when he quotes from the letter. His pride and arrogance that he is worthy to marry Olivia is extremely funny. It is also the dramatic irony that makes it humourous, as the audience and most of the characters realise where he is quoting from whereas Olivia doesnt understand what he is talking about and believes it to be midsummer madness. It is very entertaining to see Malvolio act in such a way, smiling insanely, as it is a complete contrast between his earlier self, very pompous and arrogant. However, he as he has been told in the letter, he speaks rudely to the other characters and believes himself to be not of (their) element, which is funny because actually he is no more important than any of the other servants. It is also the frustration that he shows when people arent taking him seriously that makes the audience laugh. It is funny when Malvolio makes his grand exit, as he is acting an extremely bossy and arrogant manner but looks ridiculous so the contrast is comical. In fact, this whole scene is a contrast to the main theme of love and romance. Another example of visual comedy in Act 3 Scene 4 would come from the duel between Sir Andrew Aguecheek and Viola (as Cesario). Sir Andrew is essentially a figure of fun throughout the play, being described as a foolish knight by Sir Toby and having hair which hangs like flax on a distaff which would make him look really odd. He has written a challenge to Viola because he thinks he is a rival for Olivias affection, but when Sir Toby reads it out, it is totally nonsensical. Fabian says of it: READ: Masks In The Twelfth Night EssayVery brief and to exceedingly good sense (Aside) less. Sir Andrew is very proud of the challenge so it is funny to see how he takes it so seriously even when the other characters are mocking his prose behind his back by using asides and whispers to each other. Sir Toby and Fabian decide not to show the letter to Viola, but instead they tell him verbally that Sir Andrew is a very noble and valiant knight, something that the audience knows isnt true and would cause much amusement: He is indeed, sir, the most bloody, and fatal opposite that you could possibly have found in any part of Illyria. They then say similar things to Viola about Sir Andrew: Why, man, hes a very devil.They say he has been fencer to the Sophy. When the two come to fight, they are both absolutely terrified of the other and that provides opportunities for plenty of visual humour with Sir Andrew and Fabian practically having to drag them towards each other with their swords drawn. It is comic irony that Olivia is unaware of Sir Andrews love for her and has been rejected by Cesario, so really there is no point in the duel in the first place. The actual preparation for the fight is almost slapstick, especially when Antonio comes running in to take Cesarios place. The confusion that arises here is humorous, as it is funny to see Antonio confusing Cesario for Sebastian at the same time as Sir Toby would be mystified by who this stranger is. Fabian and Sir Toby then add another part to their joke by convincing Sir Andrew that Cesario is a coward and has run away. They want him to follow and cuff him soundly, which is funny because Andrew had previously been against the duel because he thought he would be beaten, but now that he thinks he has a chance of winning he is suddenly full of valour. The situation is becoming completely absurd at this point, something that the audience would find very amusing. Another form of comedy running throughout the play is cross-dressing. Audiences in Shakespearean times would find it funny to see a man acting the part of a woman pretending to be a man. This is because all parts in those days were played by males, with female roles being played by boys before their voices deepened. The fact that there is so much pretence involved makes it doubly ironic. It would be funny to see Viola, a woman, being asked to duel by Sir Andrew and being so scared that she is almost tempted to reveal her disguise. She says in an aside just before she is due to fight: A little thing would make me tell them how much I lack of a man. One of the main linguistic forms of comedy used by Shakespeare is puns, which are still used today but probably had more relevance to a Shakespearean audience than to us. This is because the puns were in the language of the time and were understood far more easily than they are today. It is also funny to see other people being the object of the pun, and misunderstanding of words. For instance, when Olivia believes Malvolio to be mad, she suggests that he go to bed. However, he misinterprets this remark and believes her to be offering for him to go to bed with her. To bed? Ay, Sweetheart, and Ill come to thee. During Shakespeares time, the words made and mad were pronounced the same. He has used this language to his advantage and creates humour by having Malvolio to say thou art made, which Olivia takes to understand that he is telling her that she is mad. This confuses her and the audience finds this funny. Another device used by Shakespeare is oxymorons. Sir Toby says that the letter, being so excellently ignorant, will breed no terror in the youth, which emphasises how bad the letter is, but is also funny for the audience to hear because excellently, and ignorant, are complete opposites. READ: Othello, by Shakespeare EssayYet another form of comedy comes from the characters. Sir Toby spends the whole scene manipulating the actions, firstly of Malvolio because of the letter he dropped in his way and the fact that he is given the task of looking after him, and then, more directly, of Sir Andrew. He is a bit like a puppet master who has Sir Andrew and, although not for such a long period, Viola dancing to his tune. When Olivia becomes worried by Malvolio who is acting totally out of character, she asks Sir Toby to take great care and look after him: Wheres my cousin Toby? Let some of my people have a special care of him; I would not have him miscarry for the half of my dowry. Sir Toby willingly plays along with pretending to be concerned about Malvolio when he knows all along what has caused his strange behaviour. He, together with Maria and Fabian, approach Malvolio and try to talk to him: .. .peace, we must deal gently with him. How do you, Malvolio? What, man, defy the devil! The audience would find this very funny, especially considering Malvolios lack of appeal as a character. Later on, Toby calls him a bawcock, which would be an insult as this was a term of endearment spoken to a child. Malvolio would have been insulted by this, adding to the audiences amusement. Tobys plans for Malvolio, to put him in a darkened room and bind him up, would have met with general amusement as well. Sir Toby manipulates the whole scene with Sir Andrew and Viola for his own entertainment. Again, as he is a character that the audience would find appealing because he is lively and, on many occasions, drunk and funny, the audience would find the whole business of the duel hilarious. The physical comedy of a man acting drunk was usually very funny to an Elizabethan audience, as it still is now. However, aside from this comedy, there is a more serious element to the plot. At the end of the scene, there is still comedy, but a hint of seriousness. If this were a tragedy, then things may well have turned out differently but as it is a comedy, we know that everything will be all right in the end. There is a hint of how these problems will be resolved in this Scene. For example, when Antonio asks Cesario for his purse, thinking that he is Sebastian, he is taken aback when he claims to not have it. When Antonio is then arrested, we are reminded that things could actually go down hill. However, Viola realises that her brother may be alive so we know eventually Sebastian will have to be mistaken for Cesario to resolve the confusion. Even though the trick on Malvolio was very funny at the time, it could have led to him becoming mad and being left in the dark room forever. The audience can even begin to feel sorry for Malvolio as the joke may have gone too far. Some people have even said that the situation with Malvolio is not completely resolved, as on his final exit he says that he will have his revenge. Ill be revengd on the whole pack of you! In spite of this, it can be said that Shakespeare never meant for the audience to feel sorry for Malvolio, and that he deserved to get his comeuppance, so there is no need for him to have a happy ending. Still, the other characters were never unpleasant, so deserved to have happy endings. As the title suggests, we know that in the celebration of Twelfth Night, all will be resolved.
Case study on the Zeal Peso - Essay Example From the case, we know that the exchange rate at the beginning was 20ZPG per dollar; the total time from 1973 to 1995 is 22 years. Price levels in the US have moved from 70 to 140 representing 100% inflation while those in the Zeal have moved from 50 to 180 representing 260% inflation. Substituting these figures in equation 2 we get: This represents 1/36 = $0.027 per Zeal Peso. According to the case report, the peso had devalued to a figure of $0.0263 per peso, which is the same figure predicted using PPP. Assuming that PPP holds true, then we can conclude that the figure $0,0263/ZPG is the best prediction for the Zeal peso spot rate for the last 22 years. (Shapiro, 2006: pp137). Therefore we can conclude here that the currency has devalued enough. However, given that this is the figure for 1995, the figure might be expected to reduce with further increase in inflation by the end of 1996. In my opinion, it was possible to forecast the peso float. From an understanding of purchasing power parity it is clear that two currencies can only be in fixed parity if the rates of change of consumer prices in the two countries are equal through time. In so far as the changes in inflation rates in one country are more than the other it will not be possible for fixed parity to be maintained. Thus, the currency values must readjust to reflect the inflation differentials. In the case of the US and the Zeal, one can observe from table 2 that the consumer price index for both countries has been increasing but that for the Zeal witnessed higher increases than that for the United States. As purchasing power parity states, currencies with higher inflation rates should depreciate relative to currencies with lower rates of inflation (Shapiro, 2006). Therefore given that the inflation index for the Zeal was increasing at a rate that was higher than that for the US it should have been possib le to forecast the peso float. Question 3. According to Black (2002), foreign exchange reserves or international reserves represent liquid assets held by a country's government or central bank for the purpose of intervening in the foreign exchange market. These include gold or convertible foreign currencies. (Black, 2002). For example in the case of the Zeal this might refer to assets denominated in US dollars rather than the Zeal peso. Foreign exchange reserves can also include balances with international institutions, notably the International Monetary Fund (IMF). (Black, 2002). Looking at table 3, which shows the balance of payments for the Zeal from 1973 to 1995, including the international reserves, we can observe that the international reserves have been decreasing since 1973. The international reserves have dropped from $-45million in 1973 to $-150million. This implies that the country has more liquid liabilities and not assets in foreign currency and therefore less money has been transferred out of the country. Instead, more money has been moved into the country in foreign currency. This is contrary to the assertion in the case that many people transferred money out of the country. Question 4 Bodie et al (2002), Shapiro (2006) state that in a well functioning foreign exchange market, there should be a spot-futures exchange rate relationship that will